In Myocardial Tissue Engineering (pp. USA.gov. Cells can also be directly incorporated into the hydrogel without compromising their viability.149 Another benefit of SLA is the ability to incorporate peptide, proteins, and biomolecules in the hydrogel to influence cell attachment and function.150 For example, the peptides Arg‐Gly‐Asp‐Ser (RGDS), a generic cell adhesion peptide, and Arg‐Glu‐Asp‐Val (REDV), an EC specific adhesion peptide, were incorporated onto the surface of PEGDA hydrogels in a specific 2D pattern.151 Results showed that FBs attached to RGDS modified regions but not to REDV modified regions. Curr Med Chem. is the founding scientist of Elastagen Pty. The different requirements for fabricating vascular grafts, and meso‐ and microvasculature, are considered here.
Tissue Eng Part C: Methods, 22(5):496-508.
Vascular Tissue Engineering: Advanced Techniques and Gene Editing in Stem Cells for Graft Generation Sin-Guang Chen 1 , Felix Ugwu 2 , Wan-Chun Li 3 , Noel M Caplice 4 , Eugen Bogdan Petcu 5 , Shea Ping Yip 6 , Chien-Ling Huang 7 Current progress on scaffold production, genetically modified cells and use of nanotechnology-based monitoring has considerably improved the long-term patency of engineered tissue grafts.
The transport of soluble factors is crucial for cell nourishment and cell–cell signaling and promotes blood and lymphatic capillary morphogenesis.170 Laser degradation can also be used to produce intraluminal topological features within the fabricated microvasculature which can generate geometrical cues that promote EC adhesion, migration, and proliferation and formation of a complete endothelium (Figure 4C).168. Design template analogous to the one in Fig. CA: carotid artery, SCf)f)
The middle layer contains HUVECs and supporting cells incorporated in a mixture of sodium alginate, GelMA, and 4‐arm poly(ethylene glycol)‐tetra‐acrylate (PEGTA). The type of cells stacked with EC sheets to improve vascularization varies and depends on the targeting tissue.
Extrusion: FDM allows for the use of thermoplastics such as PCL,119 PVA,120 PLA,104 4‐acryloylmorpholine,121 and PEGDA121 to fabricate PVGs with straight tubular structure120, 121 as well as grafts that have multiple bifurcations with diameters ranging from 2 to 4 mm.119 Extrusion of bioinks results in cell‐laden PVGs without the requirement for cell seeding and allows for cell interactions within the printed structure. https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEB.2019.0264.
Both inkjet and laser‐assisted bioprinting can be used for bioink droplet self‐assembly as low cell densities and high‐resolution printing are required.
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