325 (War Plans), Serial 19. This policy continued during the 1920s and 1930s, and parts of "Gray" and "Purple", although never officially activated, were used. Theories developed in wargaming Red-Orange were useful during World War II, when the United States engaged the Axis in both the Atlantic and Pacific simultaneously. In 1917, British intelligence intercepted a telegram from the German foreign ministry to its embassy in Mexico City offering an alliance against the United States and assistance in the Mexican reconquest of the Southwest. 1 (January 2006): 53. Scott Ott, Bill Whittle, and Stephen Green, create 20 news episodes of Right Angle each month, thanks to our Members.
marshal industry, people, and infrastructure to meet the unpredictable needs of a nation at war with China, or any other opponent.
As the convention of using colors took root, some were eventually reused, such as Grey, which originally referred to Italy but eventually became a plan for the capture and occupation of the Azores.. War Plan Red was a plan for war against Britain and Canada. Secretary of the Navy Kenneth Braithwaite tours the Huntington Ingalls Industries shipyard in Pascagoula, Mississippi. Join the U.S. War Plan Blue Covered defensive plans and preparations that the United … Playlists containing Resurrecting War Plan Blue: We Need New Pentagon Strategy for Major Conflict...Now! The plans, developed by the Joint Planning Committee (which later became the Joint Chiefs of Staff), were officially withdrawn in 1939 in favor of five Rainbow Plans developed to meet the threat of a two-ocean war against multiple enemies.
According to the public intelligence site, Global Security, the following plans are known to have existed: Ireland, at the time a free state within the British Empire, was named "Emerald".
2. Interestingly, although the US had fought its most recent war against Germany and would fight another within twenty years, intense domestic pressure emerged for the Army to halt when it became known that the Army was constructing a plan for a war with Germany; isolationists opposed any consideration of involvement in a future European conflict. Parts of War Plan White were used to deal with the Bonus Expeditionary Force in 1932. Please download one of our supported browsers. 5.
It was reverted when the civilian government temporarily halted the program of military expansion, which was not to resume until 1931.  British territories had war plans of different shades of red—the UK was "Red", Canada "Crimson", India "Ruby", Australia "Scarlet" and New Zealand "Garnet".  Many war plans became known by the color of the country to which they were related, a convention that lasted through World War II. In 1912, U.S. President William Howard Taft considered sending an expeditionary force to protect foreign-owned property from damage during the Mexican Revolution. Resurrecting War Plan Blue: We Need New Pentagon Strategy for Major Conflict...Now!
Rainbow 2 assumed that the United States would be allied with France and Britain. I might have to wait for some new thing to appear, I might have to lose some territory, or even give up France if worst comes to the worst. Suppose There Was a War and the Merchant Marine Didn’t Come? A retired Navy captain says, 'Yes', and so do the men of Right Angle. Additionally, between the United States Civil War and World War I, the American military frequently intervened in the affairs of Latin American countries, including Colombia/Panama, Haiti, Cuba, and Nicaragua. Users who reposted Resurrecting War Plan Blue: We Need New Pentagon Strategy for Major Conflict...Now! 4. He has served on the Chief of Naval Operations’ Fleet Design Advisory Board and several Naval Study Board Committees of the National Academies. He currently is a professor of practice in the Naval Postgraduate School Operations Research Department, where he teaches campaign analysis, systems analysis, and executive programs in strategic planning and risk assessment. Released to American newspapers, the Zimmermann Telegram helped turn American opinion against Germany and further poisoned the atmosphere between the USA and Mexico. Navy Active Ship Force Levels, 1938–1944,” www.history.navy.mil/.
Relations with Mexico remained tense into the 1920s and 1930s. “The United States eventually became the great ‘Arsenal of Democracy’ but only because of two fortuitous factors: time and distance. According to the public intelligence site, Global Security, the following plans are known to have existed: National Archives at College Park, Record Group 225.2: Records of the Joint Board (1903 - 1947), Joint Board File No. Some of the war plan colors were revised over time, possibly resulting in confusion.
Proceedings. Mark E. Grotelueschen, “Joint Planning for Global Warfare: The Development of the Rainbow Plans in the United States, 1938–1941, Army History, no. Does the Pentagon need a new 'War Plan Blue' -- a preparedness strategy for major conflict. Often, junior military officers were given the task of updating each plan to keep them trained and busy (especially in the case of War Plan Crimson, the invasion of Canada). Your current browser isn't compatible with SoundCloud. NL854134098B01 325 (War Plans), Serial 694.
3. The capacity to replace ships lost in battle, as in World War II, is critical to winning wars. Rainbow 3 was a repetition of the Orange plan, with the proviso that the hemisphere defense would first be secured, as provided in Rainbow 1. Navy Basic Plan Red, Volume I (WPL-22), February 1931. The most detailed was Red-Orange, based on a two-front war against the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, which expired in 1924. Kerry E. Irish, “Apt Pupil: Dwight Eisenhower and the 1930 Industrial Mobilization Plan,” The Journal of Military History 70, no. This was the contingency which most worried U.S. war planners, since it entailed a two-ocean war against major naval powers.
In 1916, U.S. troops under General John Pershing invaded Mexico in search of Pancho Villa, whose army had attacked Columbus, New Mexico; earlier, American naval forces had bombarded and seized the Mexican port of Veracruz, and forced Victoriano Huerta to resign the residence.
The assumptions and plans for Rainbow 5 were discussed extensively in the Plan Dog memo, which concluded ultimately that the United States would adhere to a Europe first strategy in World War II. marshal industry, people, and infrastructure to meet the unpredictable needs of a nation at war with China, or any other opponent. A better prepared and trained reserve means a better prepared and trained Navy. This does not necessarily mean an arms race, but rather clearly demonstrated preparations to absorb initial contact, employ follow-on forces, sustain those forces, and, if necessary, mobilize the nation for an extended conflict. Joint Publication 4-05, Joint Mobilization Planning (23 October 2018), ix, www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/jp4_05.pdf?ver=2018-11-13-170517-383. 1. Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, 20th-century military history of the United States, relations between Mexico and the United States, http://strategytheory.org/military/us/joint_board/Symbols%20to%20Represent%20Foreign%20Countries%20(1904).pdf, http://strategytheory.org/military/us/joint_board/Navy%20Basic%20Plan%20Red-VolI(1931)%20(partial).pdf, http://www.history.army.mil/books/70-7_01.htm, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/war-plan-rainbow.htm, "Session: Problems and Exercises, Blue and Orange Series, Blue and Black Series, 1914-1915", http://research.archives.gov/description/3858112, http://research.archives.gov/description/2965746, "694.
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